Report revealed a year ago that 12-story condo was SINKING and at risk

A report last year revealed the 12-story condo building that killed one person and left 99 missing when it collapsed on Thursday was sinking and possibly in dangerous condition before the horrific event – sparking questions if the tragedy could have been prevented and how to prevent similar collapses in the future. 

Authorities have not yet determined what caused the building to collapse and Miami-Dade police have opened an investigation – though Mayor Daniella Levine Cava said ‘there has been no evidence found of foul play.’ 

The report, from last year, was uncovered as it was also revealed that recent construction work on the the roof could have triggered the collapse – and that the building was due to have its safety recertified in just months.   

Shimon Wdowinski, a professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University, told USA Today that he knew instantly which building had collapsed when he heard news reports because he had studied the building for the report published last year.

‘I looked at it this morning and said ‘Oh my god.’ We did detect that,’ he said. 

His study was part of a wider look at how buildings in Miami were sinking generally with rising sea levels caused by climate change.    

The Champlain Towers South sea-view condo development was built in 1981 by the late developer Nathan Reiber’s company Nattel Construction at 8777 Collins Avenue in the southeast corner of Surfside, but the structure hasn’t been updated significantly since then.

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Emergency crews respond to a partially collapsed residential building in Surfside, near Miami Beach in Florida

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday

Search and Rescue personnel pull out a body out of the rubble after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach, on Thursday 

A lightning strikes above the Champlain Towers South as Search and Rescue personnel work after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach

A lightning strikes above the Champlain Towers South as Search and Rescue personnel work after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach

A lightning strikes above the Champlain Towers South as Search and Rescue personnel work after the partial collapse of the Champlain Towers South in Surfside, north of Miami Beach

A Google Street View image shows the tower before its horrific collapse on Thursday

A Google Street View image shows the tower before its horrific collapse on Thursday

A Google Street View image shows the tower before its horrific collapse on Thursday

An advertisement for the Champlain Towers is seen in the 1980s. The Champlain Towers South sea-view condo development was built in 1981 by the late developer Nathan Reiber's company Nattel Construction at 8777 Collins Avenue in the southeast corner of Surfside but hasn't been updated significantly since then

An advertisement for the Champlain Towers is seen in the 1980s. The Champlain Towers South sea-view condo development was built in 1981 by the late developer Nathan Reiber's company Nattel Construction at 8777 Collins Avenue in the southeast corner of Surfside but hasn't been updated significantly since then

An advertisement for the Champlain Towers is seen in the 1980s. The Champlain Towers South sea-view condo development was built in 1981 by the late developer Nathan Reiber’s company Nattel Construction at 8777 Collins Avenue in the southeast corner of Surfside but hasn’t been updated significantly since then

 

A total of 55 condos collapsed on Thursday – more than a third of the 136 within the building – with most belonging to first-time homeowners. The tower has a mix of seasonal and year-round residents but authorities said the building was ‘substantially full’ when it collapsed.

It had a few two-bedroom units currently on the market at the time of the collapse with asking prices of $600,000 to $700,000. Some have sold for more than $2 million.

The area is a mix of new and old apartments, houses, condominiums and hotels, with restaurants and stores serving an international combination of residents and tourists. 

According to the Florida International University study, the building was sinking at a rate of about 2 millimeters a year in the 1990s because it sits on reclaimed wetlands – which could have impacted the building’s structure. 

However, that rate could have slowed down or sped up since then, Wdowinski said, adding to the Miami Herald that the land’s slow sinking alone would not have caused the building to collapse.

Shimon Wdowinski, a professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University, told USA Today that he knew instantly which building had collapsed when he heard news reports because he had studied the building for the report published last year

Shimon Wdowinski, a professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University, told USA Today that he knew instantly which building had collapsed when he heard news reports because he had studied the building for the report published last year

Shimon Wdowinski, a professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University, told USA Today that he knew instantly which building had collapsed when he heard news reports because he had studied the building for the report published last year

‘It was a byproduct of analyzing the data. We saw this building had some kind of unusual movement,’ Wdowinski told USA Today.

The paper was published in April 2020 in the academic journal Ocean and Coastal Management. 

‘In some locations, as in the eastern part of the city, the detected subsidence [sinking] is of a 12-story high condominium building,’ the paper ominously warns.

It’s not immediately clear if the 12-story building referenced in the paper is the condo that collapsed. It’s also not clear if any officials took note of the paper when it comes to shoring up any dangerous conditions.

In a video posted by FIU, Wdowinski said hundreds of buildings can be sinking bit-by-bit – and hundreds of buildings can have cracks, not just in Miami. What would cause one to collapse would be an engineering problem, he said.

Local officials have said the condo block was right in the middle of going through a recertification process required by Miami Dade building code – which dictates that buildings have to be re-certified every 40 years. The building was due to be recertified for the first time since its construction this year.

Kenneth Direktor, a lawyer for the Champlain Towers South Association, told The Miami Herald on Thursday that to prepare for the recertification process an engineer had been hired to plan ‘structural and electrical’ updates but that work hadn’t started yet.

He told The New York Times that the building had been about to undergo ‘extensive repairs for rusted steel and damaged concrete’ but that he had seen nothing to suggest the collapse was related to issues identified in the engineering review.

Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis speaks to the media about the 12-story Champlain Towers South condo building that partially collapsed on June 24, 2021 in Surfside, Florida

Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis speaks to the media about the 12-story Champlain Towers South condo building that partially collapsed on June 24, 2021 in Surfside, Florida

Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis speaks to the media about the 12-story Champlain Towers South condo building that partially collapsed on June 24, 2021 in Surfside, Florida

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

Hundreds of firefighters were seen walking through the wreckage, picking up other survivors and carrying them away. Authorities fear many more people may be dead or remain trapped under the rubble

Hundreds of firefighters were seen walking through the wreckage, picking up other survivors and carrying them away. Authorities fear many more people may be dead or remain trapped under the rubble

Hundreds of firefighters were seen walking through the wreckage, picking up other survivors and carrying them away. Authorities fear many more people may be dead or remain trapped under the rubble

Direktor added that any waterfront building as old as the Champlain Towers would have some corrosion and concrete deterioration and insisted on Thursday that it was too early to speculate about what had happened. 

The Miami Herald reported that Frank Morabito was the engineer retained by the Champlain towers but that he could not be reached for comment on Thursday. 

Direktor told The Washington Post on Thursday that the building was ‘thoroughly inspected’ recently as part of the recertification process and that a report on the inspection was sent to town authorities.

He described the report’s findings were ‘fairly typical’ for a building of its age and did not cast doubt on its structural integrity. 

‘There was nothing in the report that would have indicated a life-safety concern,’ he told the outlet.

Rescue teams rescued 35 people from the damaged building and two people, including the young boy, were pulled from the rubble in the early stages of the search operation

The surveillance video, obtained by WSVN, shows portions of the 12-story Miami Beach apartment building crumbling and sending a huge cloud of debris into the air when it collapsed in the middle of the night

The surveillance video, obtained by WSVN, shows portions of the 12-story Miami Beach apartment building crumbling and sending a huge cloud of debris into the air when it collapsed in the middle of the night

The surveillance video, obtained by WSVN, shows portions of the 12-story Miami Beach apartment building crumbling and sending a huge cloud of debris into the air when it collapsed in the middle of the night

Surfside Mayor Charles W. Burkett said roof renovations were being done on the property but that they should not have contributed to the collapse.

‘The building has literally pancaked. That is heartbreaking because it doesn’t mean to me that we are going to be as successful as we wanted to be in finding people alive,’ he said.

He instead described the collapse as a ‘catastrophic failure’ of the building. 

‘It’s hard to imagine how this could have happened,’ Burkett said. ‘Buildings just don’t fall down… There’s no reason for this building to go down like that unless someone literally pulls the supports out from underneath.’ 

He suggested that potential causes could be the result of the foundations being washed out or a sinkhole. 

JJI Supply, a general contracting company based in West Palm Beach, received a notice in April about the re-roofing of the building, The Real Deal reported. The outlet obtained records showing that Debra and Edward Campany of West Palm Beach lead the general contracting business.

Bruce Masia of KW Property Management & Consulting told Florida’s Biz Journal that the ongoing roof renovation on the property could have added extra weight that the building couldn’t withstand. 

‘Buildings don’t fall down right away. They fall down because there are problems and those problems need attention,’ he said.

However, Surfside Vice Mayor Tina Paul told The Washington Post on Thursday that Champlain Towers South passed a roof inspection on Wednesday – the day before the collapse.

Jeff Rose, a contractor whose parents live in the building, told the Miami Herald that he had done renovations for some of the condos and that work on the roof had started about six weeks ago.

He added that some concrete restoration work was also being done to fix old or damaged concrete but that the concrete work was not out of the ordinary. 

‘I didn’t notice anything I haven’t seen in many other buildings in South Florida,’ Rose told the outlet.

However, an engineer who specializes in concrete repair projects told the Miami Herald that one potential structural flaw called ‘concrete spalling’ jumped out at him when he watched video of the collapse

The engineer, Greg Batista, described the flaw as ‘concrete cancer’ and said that it happens when salt water seeps into porous concrete causing steel rebar in the support beams to rust and expand – which can break the concrete and weaken the beams. 

A front end loader shifts rubble mixed with furniture and household items, as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed, late on Thursday, June 24, 2021, in the Surfside area of Miami

A front end loader shifts rubble mixed with furniture and household items, as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed, late on Thursday, June 24, 2021, in the Surfside area of Miami

A front end loader shifts rubble mixed with furniture and household items, as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed, late on Thursday, June 24, 2021, in the Surfside area of Miami

A Miami-Dade Fire Rescue team sprays water onto the rubble as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

A Miami-Dade Fire Rescue team sprays water onto the rubble as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

A Miami-Dade Fire Rescue team sprays water onto the rubble as rescue efforts continue where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

Workers ride in a lift as smoke rises off the rubble where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

Workers ride in a lift as smoke rises off the rubble where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

Workers ride in a lift as smoke rises off the rubble where a wing of a 12-story beachfront condo building collapsed late on Thursday

Surfside Commissioner Charles Kesl told Local 10 that there were also ‘garage underground issues’ found during various inspections recently relating to the recertification process.

‘And, to my understanding, there were some cracks from that project – minor cracks – that were just patched up. Nothing, based on my understanding, to the magnitude that would indicate that there was a structural problem that could result in something so catastrophic,’ Kesl said.

Kit Miyamoto, chair of the California Seismic Safety Commission also spoke to Anderson Cooper and said that Miami-Dade has actually good standards to examine buildings every year.

Miyamoto said it appears likely that corrosion was a culprit as the side of the building that collapsed was the side facing the ocean. Salt water could have gotten in and corroded the metal columns in the building.

If the soil is settling, that also could have affected the columns, as they get pulled in as the ground settles, Miyamoto said.

Miyamoto called rescue efforts ‘extremely dangerous’ but that ‘there’s definitely still hope’ that survivors of the building collapse could be found.

Even with concrete floors sandwiched on top of each other, air pockets are likely. People have been found in similar wreckage ‘days after,’ he said. 

Kobi Karp, an architect whose firm has worked on prominent Surfside and Miami Beach buildings, told The New York Times that the way the building had collapsed suggested a ‘possible internal failure.’

He said the internal failure may have been caused by ‘deterioration at the point where a horizontal slab of the building meets a vertical support wall’ – which he explained to the outlet could lead one of the building’s floors to suddenly fall and take the rest of the building down.

Karp said that such a deterioration could have happened either slowly over years or suddenly if the structure of the building was unintentionally damaged. 

Some people in Surfside had previously raised concerns about the integrity of the aging building. 

Barry Cohen, 63, the former vice mayor of Surfside, said he raised concerns years ago about whether nearby construction might be causing damage to the building after seeing cracked pavers on the pool deck.

In 2015, a resident also sued in 2015 claiming building management did nothing to repair cracks from water damage. 

Miami PD open probe into collapse of condo that has left one dead and NINETY NINE people missing as desperate families gather at the scene with pictures of loved ones and dramatic footage of disintegration emerges 

 Police have opened an investigation into the 12-story Miami apartment building collapse that left one dead and 99 missing – as hundreds of rescue crews continue to scour through tons of rubble and desperate families wait for news of any survivors.

Officially, only one woman has been confirmed dead after the Champlain Towers South beachfront building collapsed at about 1.30am on Thursday in Miami’s Surfside neighborhood.

Authorities, however, have warned the death toll could climb sharply given there were 99 people still missing as of Thursday afternoon. It was unclear whether any, or all of them, were inside the building of the collapse.

Horrifying surveillance footage, obtained by WSVN, captured the moment the building collapsed, sending a huge cloud of debris into the air and officials said the level of destruction made it seem like a ‘bomb went off’.

Rescue teams are currently entering the rubble in groups of 10 to 12 at a time with dogs and other equipment as they trawl the wreckage for any survivors. Sources told NBC that search a dog had tracked two potential survivors as of Thursday afternoon.

Hundreds of distraught relatives gathered at a family reunification center holding photos of their loved ones as they awaited news.

As the desperate search for survivors continued, police were already probing the cause of the collapse.

Officials said the building, built in 1981, was going through a recertification process and that engineers had been hired to complete electrical and structural repairs.

Experts who had studied the building as recently as last year said the building was unstable and had been sinking since the 1990s.

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

A huge emergency search and rescue operation is underway after the beachfront condo tower, Champlain Towers South, collapsed at about 1.30am this morning in the Miami neighborhood of Surfside. One woman has been confirmed dead and at least eight people were injured

Rescue teams rescued 35 people from the damaged building and two people, including the young boy, were pulled from the rubble in the early stages of the search operation

 Thirty-five people were rescued from the damaged building including a young boy, who was photographed being pulled from the rubble in the early stages of the rescue operation. Two of those people, including the woman who has since died, were taken to hospital.

Authorities say many more people may be dead or remain trapped under the rubble and warned the recovery efforts could last an entire week.

Florida Governor Ron DeSantis had earlier said rescue teams had made contact with some survivors but did not elaborate on where they were located or if they had been rescued.

‘Right now, we have the fire rescue. They are in search and rescue mode. They are trying to identify survivors, I know they have made contact with some, and I know they are doing everything they can to save lives,’ he said.

DeSantis and other authorities said earlier that they were bracing for bad news in terms of survivors given the level of destruction.

‘The building has literally pancaked,’ Surfside Mayor Charles Burkett said. ‘That is heartbreaking because it doesn’t mean to me that we are going to be as successful as we wanted to be in finding people alive.’

Authorities say the building was ‘substantially full’ when it collapsed. Of the building’s 136 apartments, 55 were destroyed.

The tower, which is located one block away from where Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump currently live, has a mix of seasonal and year-round residents. Mayor Burkett said the building keeps a log of guests staying but does not keep track of when owners are in residence.

Hundreds of people were gathering at a family reunification center set up nearby as they awaited news on their family and friends.

The president of Paraguay’s sister-in-law and her family, as well as a celebrity plastic surgeon from Argentina are among those still missing.

Sophia López Moreira, her husband Luis Pettengill and their three young children are still missing, Paraguay’s foreign ministry confirmed.

Moreira is the sister of President Mario Abdo Benítez’s wife Silvana. The family owned a condo in the building.

Also missing is a famed Argentinian plastic surgeon, his partner, and their newly-adopted six year-old daughter.

That surgeon – Andres Galfrasconi, 45 – was visiting Miami with his partner Fabian Nunez, 55, and their daughter Sofia, six, to receive their COVID-19 vaccines.

Hundreds of distraught relatives gathered at a family reunification center holding photos of their loved ones as they awaited news

Hundreds of distraught relatives gathered at a family reunification center holding photos of their loved ones as they awaited news

Hundreds of distraught relatives gathered at a family reunification center holding photos of their loved ones as they awaited news

Relatives continuously tried to called their missing loved ones throughout Thursday while others showed off photos of their family and friends in case any one had seen them

Relatives continuously tried to called their missing loved ones throughout Thursday while others showed off photos of their family and friends in case any one had seen them

Relatives continuously tried to called their missing loved ones throughout Thursday while others showed off photos of their family and friends in case any one had seen them

Relatives continuously tried to called their missing loved ones throughout Thursday while others showed off photos of their family and friends in case any one had seen them

Relatives continuously tried to called their missing loved ones throughout Thursday while others showed off photos of their family and friends in case any one had seen them

Authorities have not yet determined what caused the building to collapse but confirmed that renovations had been underway on the roof in recent weeks. Burkett said it was unlikely that the roof work had anything to do with the collapse, instead describing it as a ‘catastrophic failure’ of the building.

‘It’s hard to imagine how this could have happened,’ Burkett said. ‘Buildings just don’t fall down… There’s no reason for this building to go down like that unless someone literally pulls the supports out from underneath.’

Burkett suggested that potential causes could be the result of the foundations being washed out or a sinkhole.

The Miami-Dade Police have assumed control of the investigation as to why the building collapsed.

The building been subject to various inspections recently due to the recertification process that has to occur every 40 years.

‘There were garage underground issues related to that, to make sure that it was done soundly,’ Surfside Commissioner Charles Kesl told Local 10. ‘And, to my understanding, there were some cracks from that project – minor cracks – that were just patched up. Nothing, based on my understanding, to the magnitude that would indicate that there was a structural problem that could result in something so catastrophic.’

Shimon Wdowinski, a professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University, told USA Today that he studied the building last year as part of a report on how buildings in Miami were sinking generally with rising sea levels.

Wdowinski said in his study that the building had been sinking since the 1990s.

He said on Thursday he knew instantly which building had collapsed when he heard news reports of it.

‘I looked at it this morning and said ‘Oh my god’. We did detect that,’ he said.

The collapse, which appeared to affect one leg of the L-shaped tower, tore away walls and left a number of homes in the still-standing part of the building exposed in what looked like a giant dollhouse.

Bunk beds, tables and chairs could be seen still left inside the damaged apartments. Air conditioner units were hanging from some parts of the building where wires now dangled.

Bunk beds, tables and chairs could be seen still left inside the damaged apartments. Air conditioner units were hanging from some parts of the building where wires now dangled

The collapse left a number of units in the still-standing part of the building exposed with furniture visible inside some apartments

Several air-conditioning units were hanging from the building after the building collapsed

Several air-conditioning units were hanging from the building after the building collapsed

Several air-conditioning units were hanging from the building after the building collapsed

Photos and video from the scene show the collapse affected half the tower. Piles of rubble and debris surrounded the area just outside the building.

The debris from the collapse coated cars up to two blocks away with a light layer of dust.

Barry Cohen, 63, said he and his wife were asleep in the building when he first heard what he thought was a crack of lightning.

The couple went onto their balcony, then opened the door to the building’s hallway to find ‘a pile of rubble and dust and smoke billowing around’.

‘I couldn´t walk out past my doorway,’ said Cohen, the former vice mayor of Surfside. ‘A gaping hole of rubble.’

He and his wife eventually made it to the basement and found rising water there. They returned upstairs, screamed for help and were eventually brought to safety by firefighters using a cherry-picker.

Cohen said he raised concerns years ago about whether nearby construction might be causing damage to the building after seeing cracked pavers on the pool deck.

Jennifer Carr was asleep in a neighboring building when she was awakened by a loud boom and her room shook. She thought it was a thunderstorm but checked the weather app on her phone and saw none. The building´s fire alarms went off, and she and her family went outside and saw the collapse.

‘It was devastation,’ Carr said. ‘People were running and screaming.’

Nicolas Fernandez was waiting early Thursday for word on close family friends who lived in the collapsed section of the building.

‘Since it happened, I´ve been calling them nonstop, just trying to ring their cellphones as much as we can to hep the rescue to see if they can hear the cellphones.’

Crowds of people were gathering at a family reunification center set up nearby as they awaited news on their family and friends

Crowds of people were gathering at a family reunification center set up nearby as they awaited news on their family and friends

Crowds of people were gathering at a family reunification center set up nearby as they awaited news on their family and friends

Authorities say the building was 'substantially full' when it collapsed. Of the building's 136 apartments, 55 were destroyed. Families are pictured at a family reunification center on Thursday morning

Authorities say the building was 'substantially full' when it collapsed. Of the building's 136 apartments, 55 were destroyed. Families are pictured at a family reunification center on Thursday morning

Authorities say the building was ‘substantially full’ when it collapsed. Of the building’s 136 apartments, 55 were destroyed. Families are pictured at a family reunification center on Thursday morning

Santo Mejil, 50, told the Miami Herald his wife called him from the building, where she was working as an aide for an elderly woman.

‘She said she heard a big explosion. It felt like an earthquake,’ Mejil told the newspaper. He said she later called him and said rescuers were bringing her down.

One witness, who was staying in the south Florida island city with his family, was in a neighboring building at the time and said the collapse sounded and felt like a tornado or earthquake.

‘It was the craziest thing I ever heard in my life,’ he told Fox News.

Witnesses claimed to have heard people screaming beneath the rubble during frantic efforts to free them from the wreckage of the building.

One witness told NBC: ‘They are able to rescue some people but I heard some screams.’

When the building initially collapsed, more than 80 rescue units were on the scene, including designated teams skilled in retrieving bodies from wreckages.

The building, a twelve-story apartment block called Champlain Towers South (pictured), collapsed in the early hours of this morning.

The sea-view condo development was built in 1981 in the southeast corner of Surfside, on the beach. It had a few two-bedroom units currently on the market, with asking prices of $600,000 to $700,000.

The area is a mix of new and old apartments, houses, condominiums and hotels, with restaurants and stores serving an international combination of residents and tourists.

The community provides a stark contrast from bustle and glitz of South Beach with a slower paced neighborhood feel.  

<!—->

Advertisement

Link hienalouca.com

(Total views: 119 Time, 1 visits per day)

Leave a Reply