A lullaby for the electric car generation created by scientists to help babies to sleep

A lullaby for the electric car has been created by scientists to mimic the sounds of a combustion engine and help babies fall asleep during a drive.

More than half of parents say they take their young children out in the car to help them nod off, a study by Nissan found.

They say the soothing combination of motion and sound is what helps the infants drift off – but the sound part isn’t available for owners of electric vehicles.

To solve the issue, sound designer and sleep coach Tom Middleton created a lullaby which imitates the hum of a petrol or diesel engine.

He has created an album of five three minute tracks made from a combination of white, pink and brown noise that creates a ‘hypnotic soundscape’.  

The tracks on the album include sounds heard in any normal petrol or diesel engine drive – keys, indicators, accelerating and braking.

It was recorded in a special acoustic chamber in Bedfordshire, England using a Nissan Qashqai and a Nissan LEAF to gather the sounds.

The designers say parents can then play the album to their children in the car while they are driving around trying to get them to fall asleep. 

One of the biggest worries new parents have is how to get their baby to sleep, according to parenting expert Elizabeth O’Shea.

‘Parents soon realise that taking a drive in the car or ‘dream driving’ is a great way to get a baby or young child to nod off.’

She said parents with electric vehicles have found that the motion alone doesn’t seem to work, as the ‘near silent’ battery-powered vehicle doesn’t do the trick. 

‘How interesting that it’s the sound frequencies of a combustion engine, rather than the movement, that helps children fall asleep.’ 

Parents of electric vehicles, such as the LEAF, reported that they didn't work as well as petrol engine cars in getting babies to fall asleep

Parents of electric vehicles, such as the LEAF, reported that they didn't work as well as petrol engine cars in getting babies to fall asleep

Parents of electric vehicles, such as the LEAF, reported that they didn’t work as well as petrol engine cars in getting babies to fall asleep

Research by Nissan found parents spend an average of 20 and 25 minutes on a ‘dream drive’, covering up to five miles on a single outing.

This works out at about £33.5 million per year on fuel at current prices used by all parents just trying to get their infant to sleep.

In an electric car, with costs of about 3.7 p/mile it would cost about £10.9 million in electricity and see the average family reduce 154lb of CO2 emissions, Nissan says.   

The Nissan Qashqai was recorded in an acoustic chamber including everything from dangling keys to engine noise
The Nissan LEAF had a much quieter sound profile than the petrol powered car
Slide me

Sound designers captured the audio frequency of a petrol powered Qashqai and a battery powered LEAF to create the ‘lullaby’ 

Seven out of ten parents surveyed by Nissan said they thought it was just the motion that helped babies drift off to sleep in a car, but research suggests the noise of the engine is a major contributor.  

‘Combustion engines transmit a sound frequency, a combination of white, pink and brown noise varied in tone,’ said Paul Speed-Andrews, a noise expert from Nissan. 

‘This creates an orchestral soundscape that is especially soothing and comforting to young children.’ 

With this in mind Mr Middleton and his team recorded a range of interior and exterior sounds from a Nissan LEAF and Nissan Qashqai in a semi-anechoic chamber.

They found a very different sound profile between the leaf and the Qashqai. 

Researchers say when played over a car stereo in an electric vehicle it can have the same impact on a sleeping baby as a drive in a petrol powered car.

Researchers say when played over a car stereo in an electric vehicle it can have the same impact on a sleeping baby as a drive in a petrol powered car.

Researchers say when played over a car stereo in an electric vehicle it can have the same impact on a sleeping baby as a drive in a petrol powered car.

The final sound profiles married the two vehicles, but included a mixture of common noises for any drive.

Researchers say when played over a car stereo in an electric vehicle it can have the same impact on a sleeping baby as a drive in a petrol powered car. 

‘The Nissan Dream Drive depicts the future of using sound and other sensory elements to improve people’s lives,’ said Ari Peralta from the sound design team.

‘It brings together multisensory science, immersive technologies and sound design to explore new wellness-led opportunities within mobility.’ 

The Dream Drive lullaby can be downloaded for free on iTunes, Apple Music, Spotify, SoundCloud, Deezer and Amazon Music.

WHAT IS AIR POLLUTION?

Emissions

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the biggest contributors to global warming. After the gas is released into the atmosphere it stays there, making it difficult for heat to escape – and warming up the planet in the process. 

It is primarily released from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, as well as cement production. 

The average monthly concentration of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, as of April 2019, is 413 parts per million (ppm). Before the Industrial Revolution, the concentration was just 280 ppm. 

CO2 concentration has fluctuated over the last 800,000 years between 180 to 280ppm, but has been vastly accelerated by pollution caused by humans. 

Nitrogen dioxide 

The gas nitrogen dioxide (NO2) comes from burning fossil fuels, car exhaust emissions and the use of nitrogen-based fertilisers used in agriculture.

Although there is far less NO2 in the atmosphere than CO2, it is between 200 and 300 times more effective at trapping heat.

Sulfur dioxide 

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) also primarily comes from fossil fuel burning, but can also be released from car exhausts.

SO2 can react with water, oxygen and other chemicals in the atmosphere to cause acid rain. 

Carbon monoxide 

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an indirect greenhouse gas as it reacts with hydroxyl radicals, removing them. Hydroxyl radicals reduce the lifetime of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. 

Particulates

What is particulate matter?

Particulate matter refers to tiny parts of solids or liquid materials in the air. 

Some are visible, such as dust, whereas others cannot be seen by the naked eye. 

Materials such as metals, microplastics, soil and chemicals can be in particulate matter.

Particulate matter (or PM) is described in micrometres. The two main ones mentioned in reports and studies are PM10 (less than 10 micrometres) and PM2.5 (less than 2.5 micrometres).

Air pollution comes from burning fossil fuels, cars, cement making and agriculture

Air pollution comes from burning fossil fuels, cars, cement making and agriculture

Air pollution comes from burning fossil fuels, cars, cement making and agriculture 

Scientists measure the rate of particulates in the air by cubic metre.

Particulate matter is sent into the air by a number of processes including burning fossil fuels, driving cars and steel making.

Why are particulates dangerous?

Particulates are dangerous because those less than 10 micrometres in diameter can get deep into your lungs, or even pass into your bloodstream. Particulates are found in higher concentrations in urban areas, particularly along main roads. 

Health impact

What sort of health problems can pollution cause?

According to the World Health Organization, a third of deaths from stroke, lung cancer and heart disease can be linked to air pollution. 

Some of the effects of air pollution on the body are not understood, but pollution may increase inflammation which narrows the arteries leading to heart attacks or strokes. 

As well as this, almost one in 10 lung cancer cases in the UK are caused by air pollution. 

Particulates find their way into the lungs and get lodged there, causing inflammation and damage. As well as this, some chemicals in particulates that make their way into the body can cause cancer. 

Deaths from pollution 

Around seven million people die prematurely because of air pollution every year. Pollution can cause a number of issues including asthma attacks, strokes, various cancers and cardiovascular problems. 

 

Asthma triggers

Air pollution can cause problems for asthma sufferers for a number of reasons. Pollutants in traffic fumes can irritate the airways, and particulates can get into your lungs and throat and make these areas inflamed. 

Problems in pregnancy 

Women exposed to air pollution before getting pregnant are nearly 20 per cent more likely to have babies with birth defects, research suggested in January 2018.

Living within 3.1 miles (5km) of a highly-polluted area one month before conceiving makes women more likely to give birth to babies with defects such as cleft palates or lips, a study by University of Cincinnati found.

For every 0.01mg/m3 increase in fine air particles, birth defects rise by 19 per cent, the research adds. 

Previous research suggests this causes birth defects as a result of women suffering inflammation and ‘internal stress’. 

What is being done to tackle air pollution? 

Paris agreement on climate change

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. 

It hopes to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2°C (3.6ºF) ‘and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C (2.7°F)’.

Carbon neutral by 2050 

The UK government has announced plans to make the country carbon neutral by 2050. 

They plan to do this by planting more trees and by installing ‘carbon capture’ technology at the source of the pollution.

Some critics are worried that this first option will be used by the government to export its carbon offsetting to other countries.

International carbon credits let nations continue emitting carbon while paying for trees to be planted elsewhere, balancing out their emissions.

No new petrol or diesel vehicles by 2040

In 2017, the UK government announced the sale of new petrol and diesel cars would be banned by 2040. 

From around 2020, town halls will be allowed to levy extra charges on diesel drivers using the UK’s 81 most polluted routes if air quality fails to improve.

However,  MPs on the climate change committee have urged the government to bring the ban forward to 2030, as by then they will have an equivalent range and price.

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. Pictured: air pollution over Paris in 2019.

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. Pictured: air pollution over Paris in 2019.

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. Pictured: air pollution over Paris in 2019.

Norway’s electric car subsidies

The speedy electrification of Norway’s automotive fleet is attributed mainly to generous state subsidies. Electric cars are almost entirely exempt from the heavy taxes imposed on petrol and diesel cars, which makes them competitively priced.

A VW Golf with a standard combustion engine costs nearly 334,000 kroner (34,500 euros, $38,600), while its electric cousin the e-Golf costs 326,000 kroner thanks to a lower tax quotient. 

Criticisms of inaction on climate change

The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) has said there is a ‘shocking’ lack of Government preparation for the risks to the country from climate change. 

The committee assessed 33 areas where the risks of climate change had to be addressed – from flood resilience of properties to impacts on farmland and supply chains – and found no real progress in any of them.

The UK is not prepared for 2°C of warming, the level at which countries have pledged to curb temperature rises, let alone a 4°C rise, which is possible if greenhouse gases are not cut globally, the committee said.

It added that cities need more green spaces to stop the urban ‘heat island’ effect, and to prevent floods by soaking up heavy rainfall. 

 

Link hienalouca.com

(Просмотров всего: 1 Время, 1 визитов за день)

Leave a Reply